Map of 1829

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Ilorin slave raiding was widespread throughout the Oyo savanna. This year marks the foundation of Ibadan as a refugee center in the south. Initially, Ife armies dominated the new town, but as Oyo and Owu refugees arrived, they became strong enough to expel the Ife chiefs. According to Saburi Biobaku, many Egba factions attempted to settle at Ibadan only to find they were not welcome and many people were even enslaved. As a result, groups of Egba fled the town and “encamped on the other side of the Ona River.” Thereafter, Ibadan became a predominately Oyo town concentrated on counterattacking Ilorin. Ibadan did not oppose Ife and Ijebu raiding into Egba territory and even traded with rivals in exchange for European merchandise from the coast.

Dahomey incursions in Mahi territory continued, including the destruction of Dokoundji, while the kingdom of Ketu likely distanced itself from Oyo at this time.

At the coast, the slave trade rebounded, although British suppression also increased. Eleven ships were intercepted and taken to Sierra Leone, while three ships went to Brazil and one to Cuba, of which ten of these ships left from Lagos (10). Total documented departures were over 5,000 people while an estimated 6,300 individuals left from unspecified points.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1829

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
1124 Felicidade (1829) Lagos Brazil 459
3001 Unspecified (1829) Lagos Brazil 352
48684 Bonfim (1829) Unspecified Brazil 345
776 Voladora (a) Mulata (1829) Little Popo Cuba 367
2396 Almirante (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 466
3014 Hosse (1829) Ouidah Sierra Leone 182
3016 Bela Elisa (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 232
3017 União (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 405
3019 Dona Bárbara (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 357
3020 Carolina (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 420
3023 Emília (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 486
3024 Santiago (a) Santo Jago (1829) Ouidah Sierra Leone 209
3026 Tentadora (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 432
3027 Emília (1829) Ouidah Sierra Leone 187
3028 Lêndea (1829) Lagos Sierra Leone 184

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (