Map of 1822

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This year marked the last year of the Owu war and the presumed destruction of Owu Ogbere and Owu Ipole. Meanwhile, the Borgu states continued raiding Oyo’s northwestern territory, while Adele controlled trade at Badagry. However, Afonja, who had miscalculated “in seeking to make use of militant Islam for opportunist ends … attempted to persuade the Fulani and Hausa to leave Ilorin and settle separately to the east.” Consequently, the map depicts the territory of Ilorin receding to some degree as Muslim raids seem to have subsided. After the defeat at Hundjroto, Gezo shifted his campaigns southwards laying siege to “Gbédjêwin,” which is place name that relates to a neighborhood in Cotonou on the southern shores of Lake Nakoué. By this time, Samuel Ajayi Crowther had arrived at Lagos and boarded a Portuguese slave ship, which was then captured by the British and escorted to Sierra Leone. His hometown of Osogun was destroyed the year before, but he went north from Osogun to Iseyin before being taken to the coast.  

At the coast, the slave trade reached its highest levels since 1816, whereby 26 slave ships departed. One left Porto Novo, eight left Ouidah, three left Porto Novo, one left Badagry, nine left Lagos and four departed from unspecified ports. Of these ships, seventeen went to Brazil, eight went to Sierra Leone and one French ship went to an unspecified place probably in the Caribbean. Total documented embarkations were 6,722 people, while estimates were 6,923.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1822

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
198 Santana Flor da África (1822) Unspecified Brazil 228
203 Desengano Feliz (1822) Lagos Brazil 408
207 Vigilante Guerreiro (1822) Ouidah Brazil 257
215 Maria da Glória (1822) Porto Novo Brazil 395
217 Zéfiro (1822) Ouidah Brazil 380
218 Sacramento (1822) Lagos Brazil 198
221 Vigilante (1822) Ouidah Brazil 246
223 Nossa Senhora da Conceição (1822) Lagos Brazil 365
225 Amazona (1822) Lagos Brazil 249
226 União (1822) Little Popo Brazil 327
228 Divina Providência (1822) Lagos Brazil 178
229 Constituição (1822) Unspecified Brazil 264
230 Lusitânia (1822) Ouidah Brazil 214
2927 Rimerra (1822) Ouidah Brazil 299
2933 Netuno (1822) Lagos Brazil 299
2936 Caridade (1822) Ouidah Brazil 239
46785 Boa Hora (1822) Unspecified Brazil 273
34283 Angèlique (1822) Unspecified Guadaloupe 352
2353 San Rafael (1822) Ouidah Sierra Leone 144
2916 Ninfa do Mar (1822) Ouidah Sierra Leone 3
2917 Primeira Estrela (1822) Badagry Sierra Leone 296
2919 Esperança Feliz (1822) Lagos Sierra Leone 187
2920 Esperança (1822) Lagos Sierra Leone 149
2924 Juliana (1822) Porto Novo Sierra Leone 112
2928 Gomba (1822) Lagos Sierra Leone 324
2935 São Antônio de Lisboa (1822) Porto Novo Sierra Leone 336

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (