Map of 1821

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As the Owu wars neared their end and Borgu forces continued to raid Oyo’s northwestern towns, jihād forces based at Iseyin destroyed Samuel Crowther’s hometown of Osogun. Meanwhile, Gezo’s armies unsuccessfully attacked the Mahi town of Hundjroto. In addition, Adele, the king of Lagos, went into exile at Badagry in 1821. Badagry was attacked because, according to Robin Law, “Adele had to defend Badagry against attacks from Dahomey and Porto Novo.”

At this time, twelve ships departed from unspecified ports most of which went to Brazil, except for one ship leaving Lagos for Brazil and another from Badagry that was seized and taken to Sierra Leone. Francisco Félix de Souza’s position at Ouidah was further consolidated as the leading merchant “not from appointment by Gezo alone, but also from his claim to represent the Portuguese government” through permits to trade slaves directly to Brazil. Documented ship departures totaled 3,463 people, while 3,757 people are estimated to have left.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1821

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
34167 Gazelle (a) Cirella (1821) Unspecified Brazil 183
34221 Edouard (a) Maria (1821) Lagos Brazil 266
46783 Boa Hora (1821) Unspecified Brazil 273
46784 Triunfo Africano (1821) Unspecified Brazil 239
47041 Desengano Feliz (1821) Unspecified Brazil 390
47044 Estrela (1821) Unspecified Brazil 390
900094 Boa Hora (1821) Unspecified Brazil 239
900098 São João (1821) Unspecified Brazil 239
900099 Segunda Estrela (1821) Unspecified Brazil 183
900101 Viscondessa (1821) Unspecified Brazil 530
900102 Zéfiro (1821) Unspecified Brazil 299
2912 Adelaide (1821) Badagry Sierra Leone 232

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (