Map of 1820

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The ongoing Muslim uprising and Owu War adversely affected the trade of Oyo. According to Robin Law,

The lack of success of the Oyo armies meant that there was no longer any substantial supply of war captives for sale to the Europeans while the disturbances consequent upon the decline of Oyo power disrupted the major trade routes. In the south, Dahomian pressure had interfered with the supply of slaves to Porto Novo, driving the main center of slave trade eastwards to Lagos. The principal suppliers of slaves to Lagos were the Ijebu, and they were receiving their slaves not from Oyo, but from its dissident vassals, such as Ilorin, and from the [Owu] wars.

Law adds that the Borgu towns in the north “sought to exploit Oyo’s difficulties by raiding into the northwest of the Oyo kingdom.” On the map, red dots reflect conflict at the Owu towns and Apomu, but also at Okuta, Kenu and Godeberi in the northwest. According to Thomas Mouléro, Gezo also fought a war in the Mahi town of Logozohe.

While Oyo’s power declined at its periphery and its direct involvement in the slave trade decreased, fifteen slave ships departed from unidentified ports, all of which went to Brazil except one for Cuba. Meanwhile, de Souza’s operations at Ouidah flourished. Total documented embarkations were 4,150 people with estimates slightly higher at 4,645 individuals.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1820

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
40828 Americana Portuguesa (1820) Unspecified Brazil 390
41780 Rosália (1820) Unspecified Brazil 239
46412 Divina Pastora (1820) Unspecified Brazil 239
46756 São João do Rio (1820) Unspecified Brazil 390
46781 Boa Hora (1820) Unspecified Brazil 390
46782 Triunfo Africano (1820) Unspecified Brazil 239
46788 Estrela (1820) Unspecified Brazil 183
46835 Esperança (1820) Unspecified Brazil 183
46862 Nova Estrela (1820) Unspecified Brazil 183
46865 Gratidão (1820) Unspecified Brazil 390
47369 Caridade (1820) Unspecified Brazil 239
51853 Vitória (1820) Unspecified Brazil 390
900083 Americana (1820) Unspecified Brazil 239
900091 Purificação e Passos (1820) Unspecified Brazil 273
34178 Levrette (1820) Unspecified Cuba 183

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (