Map of 1819

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Much like the previous year, the Muslim uprising and Owu wars continued. This map expands the yellow border of Ilorin to reflect slave raiding near and along the Ogun River. At the coast, Robin Law argues that “Lagos was entirely dependent upon the Ijebu port of Ikosi for its supply of slaves.” Most enslaved people would have arrived to Lagos after being captured in the Owu Wars. Meanwhile, Gezo began to expand Dahomey’s territorial limits by subjugating “Séréchi,” which was likely the town of Tchetti to the northwest of Abomey.

There were nineteen slave ships leaving the Bight of Benin all of which went to Brazil from unidentified ports, except for one ship departing from Keta, which likely did not have any people on board who had been involved in the major conflicts in the region under analysis. By this time, de Souza had returned to Ouidah. Total documented departures increased from the previous year at 4,764 individuals with estimates slightly higher at 5,010 people.

For citations see: Henry B. Lovejoy, "Mapping Uncertainty: The Collapse of Oyo and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, 1816-1836," Journal of Global Slavery 4, 2 (2019): 127-161. (Open source access).

Documented Slave Voyages in 1819

Voyage ID Name Departure Arrival Individuals
40477 Santana Flor da África (1819) Unspecified Brazil 183
41835 Diligente (1819) Unspecified Brazil 239
46743 Dois Amigos (1819) Unspecified Brazil 183
46780 Brasileiro (1819) Unspecified Brazil 390
46842 Emília (1819) Unspecified Brazil 183
46856 Bonfim (1819) Unspecified Brazil 183
46859 Vulcano do Sul (1819) Unspecified Brazil 273
46863 Lusitânia (1819) Unspecified Brazil 239
46866 Conde de Palma (1819) Unspecified Brazil 390
47060 Nossa Senhora da Conceição (1819) Unspecified Brazil 183
48799 Caridade (1819) Unspecified Brazil 183
48803 Fênix (1819) Unspecified Brazil 239
48831 Santana Flor da África (1819) Unspecified Brazil 390
49946 Fênix (1819) Unspecified Brazil 239
900074 Livramento (1819) Unspecified Brazil 390
900075 Nova Resolução (1819) Unspecified Brazil 390
900078 Providência (1819) Unspecified Brazil 239
900080 Soledade (1819) Unspecified Brazil 239
2318 Juanita (1819) Keta Sierra Leone 9

*Ship totals with the same number based on imputted data. See Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database (