The Portuguese Sumaca, Providência, left Bahia on 27 July 1819 and purchased 239 enslaved people at the Costa da Mina (no date recorded). This broad region corresponds to a coastal strip in the Gulf of Guinea encompassing the Gold Coast and Bight of Benin. While some ships leaving ports along the Gold Coast would not have carried Yoruba speakers, many of these ships would have been avoiding British blockades and likely traded further east in the Bight of Benin, most especially between Little Popo, Ouidah and Lagos. The undocumented captain sailed the vessel, owned by João Ferreira Guedes, back toward Brazil as intended, when it likely landed at São Salvador da Bahia in 1819. Only 217 people survived the Middle Passage. For more information, see Map of 1819.
As Referenced in Voyages
Arquivo Público do Estado da Bahia (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil), APEB, cod 456, p. 294v.